Euro Definition, History, Symbol, & Facts

Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems. Use of the Euro outside the EUA number of sovereign states that are not part of the European Union have since adopted the Euro, including the Principality of Andorra, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of San Marino, and the Vatican City. The Euro is used as a trading currency in Cuba, North Korea, and Syria and several currencies are pegged to it. Our currency rankings show that the most popular US Dollar exchange rate is the USD to USD rate.

For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments (e.g., credit cards, debit cards and cash machine withdrawals). To participate in the currency, member states are meant to meet strict criteria, such as a budget deficit of less than 3% of their GDP, a debt ratio of less than 60% of GDP (both of which were ultimately widely flouted after introduction), low inflation, and interest rates close to the EU average. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro.

  1. The changeover period during which the former currencies’ notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February 2002.
  2. The treaty called for a common unit of exchange, the euro, and set strict criteria for conversion to the euro and participation in the EMU.
  3. This is because of the implications of the Mundell–Fleming model, which implies a central bank cannot (without capital controls) maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously, because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency.
  4. Value of Obsolete National CurrenciesEuro bank notes and coins began circulating in 2002 with old notes and coins gradually being withdrawn from circulation.
  5. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin.

The euro is the official currency of the European Union (EU), adopted by 19 of its 27 member nations. It is the world’s second most popular reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, and the second most traded. These countries generally had previously implemented a currency peg to one of the major European currencies (e.g. the French franc, Deutsche Mark or Portuguese escudo), and when these currencies were replaced by the euro their currencies became pegged to the euro.

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The European Central Bank (ECB) has an EU mandate to maintain price stability by preserving the value of the euro. The ECB is part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) along with the national central banks of all the EU member states, including those that have not adopted the euro. While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role. A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate. In 2007 Slovenia became the first former communist country to adopt the euro. Having demonstrated fiscal stability since joining the EU in 2004, both Malta and the Greek Cypriot sector of Cyprus adopted the euro in 2008.

The changeover period during which the former currencies’ notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to https://www.topforexnews.org/brokers/international-council-of-air-shows/ be legal tender varied from member state to member state. The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more.

Other countries that adopted the currency include Slovakia (2009), Estonia (2011), Latvia (2014), Lithuania (2015), and Croatia (2023). (The euro is also the official currency in several areas outside the EU, including Andorra, Montenegro, Kosovo, and San Marino.) The 20 participating EU countries are known as the euro area, euroland, or the euro zone. Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro.

Beginning in 2007 or 2008 (depending on the country), the old map was replaced by a map of Europe also showing countries outside the EU.[35] The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, however, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the EU member states as of 2002, raised somewhat above the rest of the map. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro.

Adopting the euro eliminated foreign exchange risk for European businesses and financial institutions with cross-border operations in the increasingly integrated EU economy. The fiscal and monetary prerequisites for adopting the euro have also encouraged deeper political integration of member states. Value of Obsolete National CurrenciesEuro bank notes and coins began circulating in 2002 with old notes and coins gradually being withdrawn from circulation.

Flexible exchange rates

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Our currency rankings show that the most popular Euro exchange rate is the EUR to USD rate. These are the average exchange rates of these two currencies for the last 30 and 90 days. Bulgaria has negotiated an exception; euro in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet is spelled eвро (evro) and not eуро (euro) in all official documents.[125] In the Greek script the term ευρώ (evró) is used; the Greek “cent” coins are denominated in λεπτό/ά (leptó/á). As of January 2014, and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries (particularly those with a weak currency) have decreased.

Use as reserve currency

The euro is managed and administered by the European Central Bank (ECB, Frankfurt am Main) and the Eurosystem, composed of the central banks of the eurozone countries. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of euro banknotes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems. Unlike most of the national currencies that they replaced, euro banknotes do not display famous national figures. The seven colourful bills, designed by the Austrian artist Robert Kalina and ranging in denomination from €5 to €500, symbolize the unity of Europe and feature a map of Europe, the EU’s flag, and arches, bridges, gateways, and windows. The coins feature one side with a common design; the reverse sides’ designs differ in each of the individual participating countries.

The treaty called for a common unit of exchange, the euro, and set strict criteria for conversion to the euro and participation in the EMU. These requirements included annual budget deficits not exceeding 3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), public debt under 60 percent of GDP, exchange rate stability, inflation rates within 1.5 percent of the three lowest inflation rates in the EU, and long-term inflation rates within 2 percent. Although several states had public debt ratios exceeding 60 percent—the rates topped 120 percent in Italy and Belgium—the European Commission (the executive branch of the EU) recommended their entry into the EMU, citing the significant steps each country had taken to reduce its debt ratio.

Outside the eurozone, two EU member states have currencies that are pegged to the euro, which is a precondition to joining the eurozone. The Danish krone and Bulgarian lev are pegged due to their participation in the ERM II. The symbol € is based on the Greek letter epsilon (Є), with the first letter in the word “Europe” and with 2 parallel lines signifying stability. Thomas J Catalano is a CFP and Registered Investment Adviser with the state of South Carolina, where he launched his own financial advisory firm in 2018. Thomas’ experience gives him expertise in a variety of areas including investments, retirement, insurance, and financial planning.

In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.[32][33] Otherwise, normal English plurals are used,[34] with many local variations such as centime in France. While the euro can’t be devalued to facilitate economic adjustments within the EU, that’s also made the common currency a more reliable store of value. The euro remains overwhelmingly popular among the residents of the countries that have adopted it. Spelling and CapitalizationThe official spelling of the EUR currency unit is “euro”, with a lower case “e”; however, the common industry practice is to spell it “Euro”, with a capital “E”. Many languages have different official spellings for the Euro, which also may or may not coincide with general use. Additionally, there are various nicknames for the currency including, Ege (Finnish), Pavo (Spanish), and Euráče (Slovak).

The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown in the table. The euro is the sole legal tender in the EU member states that have adopted it, including Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the 11 best growth stocks to buy for 2021 Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. These countries form the eurozone, a region where the euro serves as the common currency. Four small non-EU nations (Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino, and Monaco) also use the euro as their official currency and several countries have currencies pegged to the euro.

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